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Kolej Dar Al Hikmah menawarkan : Diploma Psikologi, Diploma Kaunseling, Diploma Syariah, Diploma Usuluddin, Diploma Perakaunan, Diploma Muamalat, Sijil Pra Sekolah, Pertanyaan & Memohon klik http://www.hikmah.edu.my/test/e-mohon.php HUBUNGI 013-268 8283 (Pn.SaLeHa)

30 Mac 2009

Biarkan Dulu....

Pagi tadi saya menghantar anak sulung shirazi ke sekolah, cikgunya bertanya "husin nie dia tak berapa nak fokus semasa belajar, kalau 5 -10 minit tu boleh bertahanlah lepas tu dia main dengan kawan2 dia yang 4 5 orang tu. Macamna nak buat, nak paksa dia atau biarkan saja"

Saya menjawab biarkan saja tapi harus di kawal, kerana mmg tahun nie target saya untuk dia bersekolah dan dedahkan dengan kemahiran berkawan di sekolah. Sambil tahu ABC, 123, nasyid ketuhanan dan membaiki motor sistem semasa pegang pen. Kalau tahu membaca atau menulis itu sudah ajaib bagi saya.

Situasi di atas mungkin terjadi juga pada pelajar2 modular saya atau kawan2 yang membaca entri ini. Saya mengambil sikap biarkan kerana saya rasa anak saya ini sudah berada di dalam tahap performance nya. Mendengar dia membaca alfatihah (walau dalam sebutan pelat) dan membaca A ayam, B bola, C cawan dan seterusnya adalah cukup baik buat dia. Bagi saya, saya berpuas hati. Kerana bimbingan untuk anak-anak yang berusia 2-7 tahun adalah mengajar mereka lebih kepada pendidikan berbentuk ketauhidan dan adab. Kerana awal kanak-kanak, mereka tidak menapis apa yang diajarkan. Mereka hanya menerima sahaja apa yang diajarkan.

Apa yang penting, saya hanya ingin melihat dimensi perkembangan awalnya berkembang dan tidak terbatas.....biarlah dengan tahapnya sekarang.

PS: sebetulnya entri ini saya sudah tulis dengan banyak, tetapi kerana gangguan hubungan internet tulisan itu tidak dapat diselamatkan. Hanya ini sahaja......tak apa....biarkan!!


Artikel ini ditulis untuk dihantar pada AKADEMI KAJIAN KETAMADUNAN KOLEJ DAR AL HIKMAH untuk terbitan JAWHAR.

These terms 'potential' and 'fulfillment' - or 'actualization' or 'completion' - are of course originally from Aristotle (d. 322 BC), formulated nearly three centuries before Christ. He based his physics upon the notion that any movement is a translation of a potentiality into an actuality; so a football lying on the ground has the potential of movement which will be actualized when it is kicked; a block of marble has the potential to be a statue which is actualized by the sculptor. When it is actualized, it reaches a state of perfection which has connotations of reaching its intended state, its final condition, a state of completion; in the Arabic, this word entelechy became translated - as a kind of technical term - as kâmil, as in al-Insân al-Kâmil, the Perfect Man (Jane Clark, 2001).

There is tradition that popularized by the Sufis mentions that God had created the world to make Himself to be known, or in another word, the world being a ‘mirror’ which manifesting the perfection of God’s names and attributes. But it is only in man that the perfection God’s attributes can be manifested perfectly. The individual man who has an ability to actualize the potential of manifesting God’s names and attributes is known in the sufi literature as Insan Kamil or Perfect Man. This idea later on developed by Ibn ‘Arabi and finally made perfected by al-Jilli in his book al-Insan al-Kamil fi Ma‘rifat al-Awa’il wa al-Awakhir. Before them, there are no such terms like ‘Insan Kamil’ applied in the sufistic literature.

The term is also used by the psychological humanistic approach which externally resembles almost the same meaning with the term, Insān Kāmil which is known as ‘self actualization’ introduced by Abraham Maslow and ‘self ideal’ or ‘fully functioning’ introduced by Carl Rogers but it must be noted that, since the concept of Insān Kāmil developed within the Islamic tradition, therefore it is not fair to say that the ideas introduced by Maslow and Rogers is absolutely equal to that of Insān Kāmil in Islam.

The basic concept of Insan Kamil or Perfect Man actually has been discussed by many Sufis and philosophers. Basically this idea is based on the concept of khalifah in surah al-Baqarah (Qs. Al-Baqarah: 30). The term khalifah itself are regularly mentioned by Ibn ‘Arabi especially in his al-Futuhat al-Makkiyyah and Futuhat al-Hikam while discussing about man as microcosm (al-‘Alam al-Saghir). The term ‘microcosm’ was very popular term used by the philosopher like Ibn Sina while he described the comprehensiveness of human being, physically and psychologically.

Physically, human body composed all terrestrial elements from material and vegetative elements while psychologically, man is integrated being who integrate angelic, animalic and even satanic attributes. All of them were integrated in one’s self with balance in accordance with fitrah which is the character of al-Din itself (Qs. Al-Rum: 30).
The basic idea of Insan Kamil is also discussed by al-Ghazali in many of his books and epistles especially in his magnum opus, Ihya’ ‘Ulum al-Din. Al-Ghazali also based his concept of man as microcosm. In his epistle, al-Ajwibah al-Ghazaliyyah, al-Ghazali also mentioned that the relationship between God and the world is resembles and symbolizes in the relationship between human spirit (ruh) and his body. This is known by ‘knowing God through similarities and symbolizations.’ He based his idea on the Sufi tradition; “those who knew himself, knew God.”

Practically, human potential as Insan Kamil can be actualized through self education. It is already well establish in tasawwuf from which the concept of Insan Kamil originally developed and implemented practically by the Sufis in their tradition. They developed the system of self disciplining (mujahadah), purification of the soul (tazkiyyah al-nafs), emptying one’s self from blameworthy attributes (takhliyyah) and to fulfill it with the praiseworthy attributes (taÍliyyah) based on the teachings of the Qur’an and Prophetic examples.

All these methods can be applied in the educational system with some adjustment depend on its suitability in the society and its condition. But, the first thing to do is to free the educational system from the secularistic world view and the process of secularization which resulting desacralization of knowledge and the fitrah of man. Since the idea of Insan Kamil developed from the concept of fitrah, that means, in order to actualize the potentially Perfect Man, one must first return to the innocent fitrah which relates with the covenant (mithaq) made by human beings in the presence of God where all spirits declared the essence of tawhid and full obedience to Him alone.

By constantly confessing and repeating the declaration (shahadah); ‘there is no god except Allah,’ in parallel with constant process of takhliyyah and taÍliyyah, one can attain witnessing (shuhud) the Truth which is the essence of creation. This constant confession is known in the prophetic tradition as tajdid al-iman (renewing or revitalizing of faith).


Young generation are the prominent and valuable asset for nation development. In order to encourage their abilities and guide them from being misguided, there are various establishments, societies, newspapers, magazines and special ministries focusing on youth affairs. Such attention is because the time of youth is most precious stage through the lifespan of human development (Ali Dwain, 2005).

The issue of autonomy revolves around the struggle that adolescents undergo to establish themselves as “independent, self-governing individuals – in their own eyes and in the eyes of others” (Steinberg, 1999, p.10). There are typically three types of autonomy – emotional (wanting to become less emotionally dependent on parents), behavioral (ability to make independent decisions) and value (forming own code of value and morals).

It is worth noting that according to Steinberg (1999), moral reasoning and psychosocial problems related to it such as bullying are among the issues that adolescents will have to deal with in their struggle to obtain autonomy, the process to establish themselves as “independent, self-governing individuals – in their own eyes and in the eyes of others” and in particular, value autonomy – the formation of adolescents’ own code of values and morals (p.10).

It can be seen that the moral reasoning used by individuals, and in particular, adolescents at these two stages involve a deeper level of moral reasoning than individuals did in the previous pre-conventional level. Now, they reason that maintaining proper conduct is necessary not merely out of fear of punishment or for the desire of reward, but because such actions will affect the well-being of other members of society as well as the society as a whole. This therefore demonstrates that there is a shift from personal interest to the interest of other individuals and the society at large and thus signifies a higher level of reflective thinking in connection with the actions they make. This is also supported by Moshman (2005, p.54), who talks about “moral rationality” - the power that adolescents have to contemplate about abstract issues like moral values rationally.

Therefore, in these days, most of the youth select and chalk out a program for his life according to his own choice and sometimes does not incline with religious teaching. This time is so crucial that if a proper program is not selected and a proper path not chosen, one would have to suffer its consequences forever, and the realization would come only when there is no recourse except to face shame and humiliation, while regret is not cure (Ali Dwain, 2005).

Moreover, at this modern age, people and the youngster in particular, are in need of individuals who can be their own role model. They imitate the way they behave, speak and dress as just like them. The role model chosen must suits their age. To illustrate it, youth would choose role model among any prominent entertainment and sports figures whereas an adult would choose a prominent figure in our society. Therefore, in order to lead people to the truth and the best morality and behavior is to bring back the idea that the Prophet, his companions and his followers among the Mujahidin and Muslim scholars are among the best role models for man in every aspects, stages and ages (Jasmin, 2007, pp.14). Thus, they will exercise freely their belief what they had learnt from our educational system and they are what they had observed from their society at large. Their act definitely will affect the social system without doubt.

Moreover, at present man-made values are indirectly taught across the curriculum and directly as a subject. The school culture, referring to the total environment, physical and non-physical both, has an influence for embedding values in the moral aspect. All over the world, the major process of educational renovation for ideological orientations has remained secularistic in character and the concept of permanent values as embedded by our Holy Prophet Muhammad in the teaching-learning process has not been put in the curriculum. It is only the education based on permanent values can withstand the test of time (M. Mahdi Allam, 1998).

Faith in God and His Prophet and all that is holy may be likened be a shelter from the troubles of life, from the conflicting opinions, from excitements and temptations. Youth have to encompass with a faith in order to bind and stand firmly on the right path, guiding their conduct and safeguarding it from taking a false direction. Allah said in Holy Quran:
“O you who believe! Fear Allah, and believe in His Messenger, He will give you a double portion of His Mercy, and He will give you a light by which you shall walk (straight). And He will forgive you. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful” (57: 28)

In other verse:

“Verily, this is My way, leading straight: follow not other paths: they will scatter you about from His Path: Thus does He command you, that you may be righteous.”
(6: 153)

Qualities and Conduct of the Youth
Youth is a human most valuable asset for the society. They are like a chain for it to continue its integrity and inherit the values and culture. This asset is made up of two important components that are; the spiritual value and the actual physical force or the main power of our youth. Each part of it needs to be protected and guided by the earlier generation.
This is because the stage of youth is the period of life between the onset of puberty and the full commitment to an adult social role, such as worker, parent, and citizen. According Erik Erikson, youth is the period known for the formation of personal and social identity and the discovery of moral purpose (Schultz & Schultz, 2000)
Adolescent asks himself: "Who am I? Who do I want to be?”. Adolescents must explore, test the limits, become autonomous, and commit to an identity, or sense of self. Different roles, behaviours and ideologies must be tried out in order to select a suitable identity. Role confusion, inability to choose vocation, sexual orientation and one's role in life is resulted from the failure to achieve a sense of identity (Bark, 2000).
Thus, knowledge regarding the purpose of mankind and human capability and all related to man existence must be described clearly accordingly to the Holy Qur’an and Sunnah. This approach will help the youth associating their life with Islam. As such, all the questions above which puzzle our generation nowadays will pass by. Thus, enable our generation to live with more positive life and not to forget the living in accordance with Allah's will as Allah said:
Is one who worshipping devoutly during the hour of night prostrating himself or standing ( in adoration ), who takes heed of the Hereafter, and who places his hope in the Mercy of his Lord- ( like one who does not )? Say : "Are those equal, those who know and those who do not know?It is those who are endued with understanding that receive admonition."(39:9)
Human being stands between animal and angel, and composed within him both animalic and angelic elements. His unique characteristic is intelligence (‘aql). Man can rise to the angelic level if they can trigger the intellect and control the animal elements. Allah has created all bodily organs and faculties of the soul to help man to realize his fiÏrah. Al-Ghazali emphasised that the realization of Insan Kamil can be achieved only when the intellect has been fully utilized. Thorough knowledge is, to al-Ghazali as a prerequisite for the application of the intellect (Abdullah, 2005).

In the book entitles ‘Muhammad Insan Kamil’ by Seyyed Hossein Nasr (1994) mention about Prophet Muhammad as Insan Kamil and his role as perfect model for the youth. When come up with the question of ‘who is Insan Kamil?’, Hossein Nasr (1994) also jotted down that prophet Muhammad SAW is a primer model of Insan Kamil. According to him, Prophet Muhammad is a Perfect Man which can’t be denied. He was like the evergreen mirror who represent the ‘perfect youth’ who is suitable to be exemplified in every space and time in the past, present and future.

Undoubtedly, the stage of youth is so distinctive if we highlight the development of human as individual. In the history of any prominent figure in this world in any field even in psychology itself, those people start their career at peak within this sublime age. Not forget to describe our Islamic scholars such as Imam Shafie, al-Nawawi, al-Farabi and more Islamic figures had shown their successful in a particular field when they reach the age of youth (Ali Dwain, 2005).

To illustrate, those who joined the army of Islam in the beginning of Islam, they formed a small group consists of men and women to learn about Islam and later on they preach Islam. All of them are at the youth age including Rasulullah PBUH himself. Among them was Abu Bakr RA, ‘Umar RA, ‘Uthman RA, Mus‘ab bin ‘Umair RA, al-Arqam bin Abi al-Arqam and many more which not are mentioned here. They sacrificed themselves for Islam in order to uphold the teachings of Islam through the revelation and follow all the commandments and Sunnah of the Prophet as all of them love Islam and the Prophet. Once, they had been put into exiled by their own clan and after 13 years they settled down at Medina, they able to come back to Mecca with victory without bloodshed. They were enthusiastic youth as they could expand the region of Islam till Persia and Rome (Abdullah Nasih 'Ulwan, 1988, J. 2:681-682). This not just end after the death of our Prophet, yet the spread of Islam flourished with the flow of time. All of them are considered as the first generation of Islam.

The position of the prophets as the paradigms and model makers in Islam gives the Islamic concept of prophethood a unique characteristic. Their main responsibility is thus leading and guiding humanity to the truth by being the true living embodiment of the Message of God and not the incarnation of God. Man is thus originally innocent, sinless, good and peaceful and the role of the prophets is a positive one; that of guidance and being paradigm and not a negative one (Seyyed Hossein, 1993).

Man still in need of prophet guidance even though God has bestowed mankind with Divine Guidance. This is due to the nature of prophecy (Jasmin, 2007:3-4). The work of prophetic is not limited to convey Divine knowledge from God because the responsibility of the prophets is partly to provide the living example of the Divine Message. Yet, their message should be practical so that the rest of humanity, like them, is able to copy and follow them.

As a youth, they have been granted by Allah as the best people (Khayra Ummah). Allah has mentioned in Qur’an:
Ye are the best of peoples, evolved for mankind, enjoining what is right, forbidding what is wrong, and believing in God. If only the People of the Book had faith, it were best for them: among them are some who have faith, but most of them are perverted transgressors. (3:110)
As such, we have the opportunity and possibility to be part of the Khayra Ummah. As our life, will become the history of mankind. As being part of it, we also become an example for our next generation. Being such an example we are considered as a living proof of the teachings of Islam. Thus, being Insan Kamil is not confine to our Prophet or to those who living around his age but we can also be a part of Insan Kamil and be part of Khalifah that rules this world in the name of Islam. To be qualified as the Khalifah and Khaira Ummah we must reach to the title of Insan Kamil.
For such reason, to eradicate such thinking is not an easy task. People tend to answer such practical question with theoretical approach. Yet, we have to give an answer not just put forward the Holy Qur’an and Hadith as it reference, but we should put it side by side with an exemplar living that is those who follow the footstep of Prophet such as his companions, the prominent scholars and Imams and other prominent contemporary figures. The Holy Qur’an mentioned that we should love those who sacrifice themselves for Islam. Thus, we are not supposed just to make our Prophet as a role model but also all who live and died for Islam. Holy Qur’an:
O ye who believe! Be ye helpers of God: as Jesus the son of Mary to the Disiples, "Who will be my helpers to ( the work ) of God?" Said the disiples, "We are God's helpers!" Then a portion of the Children of Israel believed, and a portion disbelieved: but We gave power to those who believed, against their enemies, and they became the ones that prevailed (61:14).

That first generation of Islam reach its peak of their supremacy and glory in their life as they focus on two things: firstly, associating their lives such as their words, acts, beliefs, lifestyle with the teachings of Islam and secondly, they spread the teachings of Islam as they have understood them perfectly they that were chosen by God as His Khalafah. They fight for Islam with brave heart and patience (Abdullah Nasih 'Ulwan, 1998, J.2: 682-683).
As Allah SWT mentioned:
Behold, thy Lord said to the angels : "I will create vicegerent on earth."They said:" Wilt Thou therein one who will make mischief therein and shed blood?-whilst we do celebrate Thy praises and glorify Thy holy (name)?" He said:"I know what ye know not." (2:30)


The concept of perfect man must be based on the well-founded faith (iman). Faith is like a light which guides its bearer on his way. Faith is a belief that affirms within man which led their life and decision. This belief must make to Allah and this will attain the strength of morality. This belief will not make man stay apart from truth and Allah will always guide them (Yusuf Qardawi, 1985).

A young person is like a first time traveller that needs map and compass in his journey. Thus, the care of our youth should take the form of bringing them up in such a way that they become their own supervisors. The best way is to prepare them with spiritual needs (M. Mahdi Allam, 1998).

In order to attain faith it is also through devotion or ‘ibadah. ‘Ibadah is the prime action of man and as the purpose for man’s creation and existence, saying that it is to serve God and the act of service on the man’s part is called ‘ibadah (Syed Muhammad, 1978). ‘Ibadah refers to all conscious and willing acts of service for the sake of God alone and approved by Him. By performing ‘ibadah, man can succeed in curbing his animal and carnal passions and has rendered submissive his animal soul, making it subject to the rational soul which is the higher soul than the lower, animal or carnal soul (p:66).

Murtadha (2001) also explained the important of devotion (‘ibadah) in reaching the station of Insan Kamil. One of the human values confirmed by Islam is devotion, which is communication with God. Of course, in Islam every act performed for God is devotion. Having a job and a trade to support oneself and one's family and to serve society is in itself a form of devotion. But devotion, in its special sense, is a private communication with God in prayer, remaining awake for vital acts at nights (tahajjud prayer) and others, all of which are part of religion and can not be omitted.

Sometimes this way of devotion becomes fashionable in an Islamic society, and once one gets used to it, it is difficult to observe moderation. Such a person cannot say to himself that God has created him as a human being, not an angel. As a human being he actually should develop every aspect of himself harmoniously (Murtadha, 2001).

The term of Insan Kamil has never been mentioned in the Qur’Én, yet it has been widely discussed by the Sufi. The acknowledgment of such term in our religion is due to the fact that Sufism is one of the disciplines which recognized in Islam (Jasmin, 2007, pp.2). Hence, when we discuss about the approach of the development of Insan Kamil, we refer to similar approach taken by the Sufis. This Sufis approach can be practice in two levels, society at large and specific group of people (Zakaria Stapa, 2001: 53).

This paper will be focus on the approach to youth that is tazkiyyah al-nafs. This approach focuses on the development of spirituality of mankind. It consists of two parts that is process of takhalli; the process of eliminating the evil nature of human such as shirk, hasad and ghadab and the process of beatification of oneself with good characteristic or nature for example ikhlas, sidq, raja' and so on. These two processes always conflict within human being. As to surpass these processes we are in need a lot of effort and patience as it will take our whole life long. Yet, the successful of such effort also confined to the blessing of God. Those who succeed will appear as one who own strong faith and good moral conduct that is akhlaq (Zakaria Stapa, 2001, pp. 53-55). As Allah SWT said:
O ye believe ! Follow not Satan's footstep if any will follow the footsteps of Satan, he will (but) command what is shameful and wrong: and were it not for the grace and mercy of God on you, not one of you would ever have been pure: but God doth purify whom He pleases: and God is One Who hears and knows ( all things ) (24:21).

There are two dimensions involved in the process of tazkiyyah al-nafs. One should go through this dimension with perfection. These dimensions are; firstly all the religious ritual that in the form of commandment. It will give a direct effect to the growth of human spiritual for instance prayer, fasting, reciting al-Qur'an and muraqabah. Secondly, it involve with the entire God's commandment in the form of avoidance and forbidden. This aspect deals on asking mankind to preserve his or her seven vital organs such as eyes, ears, tongue, stomach, sexual genitals, legs and hands ( Zakaria Stapa, 2001, 56-59). Allah said in Quran :
Many are the Jinns and men we have made for Hell. They have hearts wherewith they understand not, eyes wherewith they see not, and ears wherewith they hear not. They are like cattle,-nay more misguided: for they are heedless ( of warning ) (7:179)

This verse indicates that by preserving seven vital organs will enable mankind to hinder wrong doings and evil deeds. The mechanisms which have been mentioned must be done with the existence of al-ihsan. In addition we as human must know all aspects of human nature and man weaknesses especially regarding human desire as to hinder the degradation of human soul ( Zakaria Stapa, 2001, 56-59)..

Besides, focusing the process of tazkiyyah al-nafs to development of Insan Kamil, we also need to discuss the aspect of education (tarbiyyah). To educate our youth undoubtedly it rested on the shoulder of parents and educators. We should encourage them in search of knowledge as such aspect enables them to open their mind, heart and soul to absolute truth of life. These can be achieved through two types of knowledge; revelation and non revelation. The importance of knowledge has been well known as first revelation started with emphasizing on knowledge that is in surah al-'Alaq. There are many verses stated the important of knowledge, the rank of knowledgeable and its effects to human (Abdullah Nasih al-Ulwan, 1998: 300) among the verses are:

Is one who worshipping devoutly during the hour of night prostrating himself or standing ( in adoration ), who takes heed of the Hereafter, and who places his hope in the Mercy of his Lord- ( like one who does not )? Say : "Are those equal, those who know and those who do not know?It is those who are endued with understanding that receive admonition." (39:9)

O ye who believe! When ye are told to make room in assemblies, ( spread out ) make room: ( ample ) room will God provide for you. Amd when ye are told to rise up, to ( suitable ) ranks ( and degrees ), those of you who believe and who have been granted ( mystic ) Knowledge. And God is well-acquainted with all ye do. (58:11)

The main important thing to be stress out to our youth nowadays is through an education that is the importance of sense of enthusiasm, dedication and patience in their thought, heart and feeling in jihad (Ismail R. al-Faruqi, 1981). Especially in this era, Islam has been met its downfall since the fall of Baghdad. Nowadays, many enemies of Islam launch strikes to Muslims in many forms (Abdullah Nasih Ulwan, 1998, pp. 688). Thus, Islam remain as one of the existence religion in this world as only few appear as a living Muslim as stated in our holy Qur’an. As to reflect, the attitude of Muslim themselves nowadays reflect the state of modern Muslim belief.

Besides, the Curriculum for Values Education must content a value which is drawn from the Holy Quran like the ones reflected through the Holy Prophet’s Qur’anic teaching process. This would involve the process of tazkiyyah al-nafs as have been mentioned before. The reflection of these values through the student’s behaviour would be the end product of teaching-learning process and would be seen in the widening relationship; between his or her family, peers and school or university and this would ultimately be expanded to national and inter-national levels in the days of their lives in future. These values should be repeatedly taught at every level of teaching. Though the values taught would be the same, the scope and emphasis would differ according to the depth and complexity of the issues discuss and parallel with the maturity level of the students. These values would not be listed in any particular hierarchy of importance, but would be instilled in the personality of students suited to their level of cognitive level during any lesson (Manzoor al-Haque, 2007, pg 2). These values regulate as a motive-valence for living peacefully on this biosphere on the doctrine of mutual respect; for the development of human self; for disciplining life within the boundary walls of the permanent values embodied in the Holy Qur’an, the only code of life on this earth. (Manzoor al-Haque, 2007: 5)

According to Abdullah Nasih Ulwan (1998: 689-697), there are stages necessary to be followed by educators for our generation as to enable them to understand and live in the name of Jihad. As such Islam will become their ultimate purpose of life. The stages are:
1- To remind constantly our children an only way to bring Islam to supremacy and nobility is through Jihad in the name of Allah. Allah mentioned in the Holy Quran:

O ye who believe! If any from among you turn back from his faith, soon will God produce a people whom He will love as they will love Him- lowly with the believers, mighty against the rejecters, fighting in the Way of God, and never afraid of the reproaches of such as find fault. That is the grace of God, which He will bestow on whom He pleaseth. And God encompassesth all, and He knoweth all things. (5:54)

2- To remind them jihad has many ways. Among them jihad with property, da‘wah, teaching, politics, war and so on. These can be supported by several verses. Among them;

God hath purchased of the believers their persons and their goods; for theirs ( in return ) is the Garden ( of paradise ): they fight in His cause and slay and are slain: a promise binding on Him in truth, through the Law, the Gospel, and the Qur'an: and who is more faithful to his covenant than God? Then rejoice in the bargain which ye have concluded: that is the achievement supreme (9:111).

Nor should be Believers all go forth together: if any contingent from every expedition remained behind, they should devote themselves to studies in religion, and admonish the people when they return to them,- that thus they ( may learn ) to guard themselves ( against evil ). (9:122)

3- To remind them constantly the position of the children of His companions. As to show our generations, how the children of His companions followed their father and ancestors footstep that is to live and die for the sake of Islam.
4- To memorize certain Quranic ayat or surah..
5- To make them understand the real meaning of Qada’ and Qadar. Such make them live with more enthusiasm.

If youth uphold the Islamic teaching in term of ‘aqidah, shari‘ah and akhlaq, there are certainly can fulfil the concept of Insan Kamil. Youth as being a part of society must all be a good example for other people and they also must perform of a duty as Khalafah and be the best Ummah (Khayra Ummah) by following the commandments Of Allah and our Prophet (SAW). Undoubtedly, Islam recognizes Muhammad as 'qudwah hasanah', the 'Perfect Man', the 'Perfect Saint', or 'Universal Man'. Yet, our youth also in need of a role model from their parents, family, friends, teachers, leaders and society as a whole especially Muslims as to enable them to understand the meaning of Islam because the process of learning not just through reading but mostly come through observation. Thus, all for us must able to follow the act of our Prophet. Allah SWT said:
Say;" I tell you not that with me are the treasures of God, nor do I know what is hidden, nor do I tell you I am an angel. I but follow what is revealed to me." Say: "Can the blind held equal to the seeing?" Will ye then consider or not? (6: 50)
The preparation of youth for the future life is the natural duty of the family, relatives, friends, relatives, and teachers and indeed of the state. It is necessary that our method of guiding our youth should be practical based on understanding of their tendencies and instincts, relying on a minimum advise, depending mostly on our good examples in conduct, and endeavouring to initiate them in an atmosphere of healthy habit which are based on their sublimated form (M. Mahdi Allam, 1998:147).

As the role model who transcends history, Prophet Muhammad is al-Insan al-Kamil who affects Muslim life today. Muslim refers to the Qur’an and Sunnah as the fundamental sources of Islam. The Qur’an commands Muslims to follow the pattern of life exemplified by the Prophet Muhammad because he is the ‘perfect pattern’ of human being sent by God to show the ideal and perfect life. To accomplish this task, every Muslim must study the Sunnah as to follow his footsteps and implement his instructions.

Good educations will always revitalizing faith and tawhid and dynamically moving towards actualizing man’s perfection, while bad education antithetically will always undermine the importance of faith and religion in human life or may be rejected it as the source of truth and serenity, which resulting the decadence of human beings and its civilization. That why Syed Qutb said: “Islam in reality is civilization itself.”

Practically, through constant educating youth and promoting them the real nature of fitrah and the essence of al-Din, will make them gradually realize their actual objective in this world. It will build consciousness and awareness depth in their heart which later motivate them towards actualizing the real ftÏrah of Insan Kamil. That why most Muslim educationist the centrality of the fitrah in Islamic education stress the importance of protection one’s self from the desacralizing of fitrah which manifested in secular education. It is because the secular education will pull away human beings from their divine root. And this ‘secular creature’ that developed in secular environment will always motivate towards deconstruction nature to desacralizing civilization in the name of development and modernity.

It is important to promote the tawhidic and imanic model to the youth as future leaders and to make them really ready to fulfil the mission assigned by God since the beginning of creation of Adam a.s. which is to be Khalifah of Allah in this world.
* Bibliografi tidak disertakan di dalam blog ini atau sebab-sebab keselamatan.



ARAHAN: Jawab semua soalan di bawah. Anda tidak dibenarkan meniru dan berbincang dengan teman yang lain.

Soalan 1:
Anda adalah pensyarah yang mengajar matapelajaran ujian dan pengukuran bagi peringkat diploma di sebuah kolej swasta. Fikirkan bentuk soalan yang ingin dibina oleh anda yang bersesuaian dengan tahap usia 18 tahun dan nyatakan kebaikan soalan yang dibina itu. Tuliskan tiga bentuk soalan tersebut beserta contoh soalan bagi setiap satu.
Soalan 2:

Seorang pelajar telah menjalan kajian personaliti ke atas sampel yang dipilih olehnya. Skor yang diperolehinya ialah:
86, 44, 56, 77, 80, 34, 44, 25, 76, 91, 61, 38, 21

a) ujian kecenderungan memusat
( 5 markah)

b) varian dan sisihan piawai
(6 markah)

c) skor- Z dan skor –T untuk sampel yang memperoleh skor 80.

Soalan 3:
Berikan definisi kebolehpercayaan dan sebutkan dua cara memperbaiki kebolehpercayaan sesuatu ujian.

27 Mac 2009

Western Sciences vs Islamic Sciences

This is my final assignment which i have submitted to my beloved lecturer: Prof. Dr. Sidek Baba:
What is science?
Before we proceed to this topic, the word of science must be cleared first. In the book entitled Islamic Science towards a definition by Alparslan (1996) wrote:
“When those kinds of human activities geared towards acquiring knowledge are examined in every civilization, we find that there are individually organized bodies of knowledge that can be characterized as disciplines. As a preliminary approach, therefore, we shall refer to any organized body of knowledge as ‘discipline’, which is systematized with a certain method, geared at the same time toward furthering that knowledge itself. Each discipline, then, is a body of knowledge which is at the same time expressed by the term science”.
So, the science can be said as a discipline of knowledge which has a systematic method to apply on the certain subject. Moreover, for the specific discipline of science, Alpraslan (1996) defined science as,
“a body of knowledge (in the sense of discipline), which arises as a result of the process of determining a subject matter that is investigated by a scholarly developed method yielding theories”.
Therefore, subject matter, method, theory and an accumulated body of knowledge are the four essential characteristics of a science, without having all these; no discipline can claim to be a science (Alparslan, 1996).
The word “science” means “knowledge.” It comes from the Latin word, “scire,” “to know.” The baseline definition of “science,” then, is human knowledge (Hooker, 1999).
Western Sciences New methods of inquiry had been invented for understanding the natural world and its processes; these include empiricism and systematic doubt. Empiricism was largely developed by English philosophers and scientist in the seventeenth century. Empirical thought is founded on the idea that all knowledge of the world comes from sensory experience; this sensory experience can be trusted to give us an accurate picture of the world. From sensory experience, we can derive the principles whereby the world works by observing phenomena repeatedly and in controlled circumstances. Empiricism, then, is knowledge that is derived through experience. During the middle Ages, human experience was not regarded as a valid way of arriving at truth; truth instead was passed on through authorities, particularly the authority of the Old and New Testaments. Sometime, we don’t know when, Europeans began to value human experience as a valid measure of the truth. This is in part signaled by Leonardo da Vinci’s claim that the human eye contains all the parts of the universe. British empiricism is not simple experience, however; it is controlled experience. Controlled experience is called an experiment (which is formed from the same word that gives us the word “experience”), and the science, or knowledge, that is derived from this controlled experience is called “experimental science.” (Hoodbhoy, Pervez. (1991). Systematic doubt was originally theorized by René Descartes in the middle of the seventeenth century. The basic foundation of Descartes systematic doubt is spelled out in The Discourse on Method , one of the most influential books in the modern period. Everything, according to Descartes, should be doubted unless it can be proven to be true under all circumstances. All subsequent knowledge should be based on this true knowledge. When systematic doubt was applied to empirical science, it completed the entire picture of Western, experimental science. Since a controlled experience can produce knowledge that means that any human being whatsoever should arrive at the same results, same experience, and same knowledge if they control the experience precisely in the same way. Controlled experience allows for that experience to be repeated; if the repetition of the experience leads to the same knowledge, then the original knowledge is confirmed. Experimental science, then, developed into a series of methods to control and limit human sensory experience so that this experience could be repeated by others who, following Cartesian logic, are bound to doubt all knowledge until they can prove it true (http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/SCIENCE/BASELINE.HTM).The method was used is primarily scientific method that mean it is empirical in nature. According Wikipedia Dictionary Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena acquiring new knowledge or correcting and Western science can be defined as a body of knowledge developed from the base in the western country integrating previous knowledge. It is based on gathering observable empirical and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning. The scientific method consists of the collection of data through observation and experimentation and the formulation and testing of hypotheses. Although procedures vary from one field of inquiry to another identifiable features distinguish scientific inquiry from other methodologies of knowledge. Scientific researchers propose hypotheses as explanations of phenomena and design experimental studies to test these hypotheses. These steps must be repeatable in order to predict dependably any future results. Theories that encompass wider domains of inquiry may bind many hypotheses together in a coherent structure. This in turn may help form new hypotheses or place groups of hypotheses into context.
Islamic science
Muslim and sciences cannot be denied of their glory. The outburst of the science have abolished from Muslim civilization started when Islam’s power has been retreated in both its eastern part, the taking of sacking of Baghdad by the Mongol in 1258 and western part when the Cordoba in 1236, Valencia, 1238 and Seville, 1248 by conquered by the Christian armies in Spain (Salah, 2002). The precious of the science as knowledge for Muslim cannot be denial.
Muslim scientists placed far greater emphasis on empiricism and experimentation than any previous ancient civilization and they introduced quantification precise observation controlled experiment and careful records. Their new approach to scientific inquiry led to the development of the scientific method in the Islamic world. In particular the empirical observations and quantitative experiments of Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen) in his Book of Optics (1021) is seen as the beginning of the modern scientific method. Other leading exponents of the experimental method included Geber (who introduced it to chemistry) Avicenna (who introduced it to medicine) and Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī (who introduced it to astronomy and mechanics). The most important development of the scientific method the use of experimentation and quantification to distinguish between competing scientific theories set within a generally empirical orientation was introduced by Muslim scientists (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_science).
So, what is mean by Islamic science? While, Islamic science is as proposed by Professor Al-Attas as:
Islamic science is that scientific activity which takes place ultimately within the Islamic worldview (which can now be identified also as the Islamic conceptual environment): but as an extension of it directly within the Islamic scientific conceptual scheme (which can be identified also as the Islamic context of sciences).
Revealed theology simply organizes and systematically presents the subject matter of the Absolute ghayb, such as the nature of God, resurrection, paradise and hell without any speculative interpretation. Speculative theology on the other hand uses the uses the subjective mood as its method to present the knowledge of the experiential realm such as the existence of God, the intelligibility of life after death and soon. Second, the science that stands in between the transcendent and physical realm. This science was study man, society, religion and the nature of science. The method used was experimental observational method and rational procedure. The classification of sciences in the physical realm requires a more rigorous attempt, it such physics, astronomy, biology, mathematics and logic.
Science of Quran
The active framework of the Islamic scientific tradition is the Islamic scientific conceptual scheme. Therefore, as its necessary ground it must have emerged first, so that a tradition is based on it. The Quran claims to originate with the one (God) who originated everything (55:2). Therefore, we have every right to logically inquire if the originator of the earth and the heavens, in the knowledge that he gives us about them knows what we have discovered about their origin through modern science. The Quran exists in the world today. Therefore, if we do not accept the Book’s claim of being a revelation from God, then we must come up with an explanation as to its origin. The existence of the Quran cannot be denied; we have a problem, which demands an explanation to justify denial, if denial were our choice.After the prophet moved to medina, prophet has setting up certain institutions that became the model of education. The school of bench known as ashab al-suffah is only one of these educational establishments which were founded by the prophet in medina. Most companions acquired the character of a real residential school where reading, writing, Muslim law, the memorizing of the chapter of the quran, tajwid and other Islamic science were taught under the direct supervision of the prophet. Prophet stressed on the education of Muslim that when some Mecca’s were taken prisoners by him after the victory of badr (Alparslan, 1996). The main purpose of establishment of the suffah was to preserve the intellectual heritage of Islam. Studying and memorizing the Quran and Hadith, spending most of their times in meditation and worship, following the prophet during the day wherever he went in order to observe what he did and said so as to record his traditions. In this sense, it performed the task of the prophet archive, and thus became the first seat of the Islamic scientific tradition (Alparslan, 1996).There are many sciences devoted to the study of the Qur’an itself. The development of such sciences dates from the first day of Qur’anic revelation; over a period of time they were unified and perfected. Today countless books are available on these sciences, fruit of the labour of different researchers over the centuries.Some of these sciences investigate the language and vocabulary of the Qur’an, and some the meanings. Those concerned with language are the sciences of correct Qur’anic pronunciation and reading (tajwid and qira’ah). They explain the simple changes which certain letters undergo when occurring in conjunction with others, the substitution of letters and the places prescribed for breath-pausing, and other similar matters. They also study the different ways the Qur’an has been written down and the several generally accepted ways of recitation, together with the three lesser known ways and the rarer modes of recitation. Other works enumerate the number of chapters and their verses, while others relate these numbers to the whole Qur’an. They discuss the tradition of Qur’anic calligraphy and how it differs from the normal Arabic script. They research, too, into the meanings of the Qur’an and the general division of subject matter, such as the place and circumstance of revelation, the interpretation of certain verses, the outward and inner meanings, the muhkam (clear) or the mutashabih (ambiguous), and the abrogating and the abrogated verses. Others study the verses containing the laws (which, in fact, are part of what is known as Islamic fiqh or jurisprudence). Others specialize in the commentary of the meanings (already seen in a previous section of the book). Specialists in each of the different sciences have published numerous works on each subject (http://www.al-shia.com/html/eng/p.php?p=quran&url=Al-Quran)The Sciences which developed because of the Qur’an the sciences of the din of Islam came into being at the beginning of the Prophet’s mission and the revelation of the Qur’an, including laws governing the behaviour and transactions of Muslims. Study of these sciences developed in the first century after the Hijrah although initially, not in any formal way. Since the Caliphs had prohibited the writing down of the tradition, they were handed down by word of mouth by the companions and their followers.In the most archival activities the companions relied mainly upon their memory. A small number of Scholars wrote on jurisprudence and on the science of the traditions at the beginning of the second century when the prohibition was lifted, allowing Scholars to record the traditions. It was at this point that a number of disciplines came into being including the Science of Traditions and the Science of establishing the authority and sincerity of those men who transmitted it; the Science of analysis of the text of the traditions; the Science of the foundations of jurisprudence and jurisprudence itself; the Science of belief in the judgment after death and the after-life. Indeed what stimulated scholars to record and arrange coherently the laws of the Arabic language was the sense that they were serving God; love of Him drew them to a clarity and sweetness of style which in turn generated the Science of correct speech and composition. It is thus related that Ibn ‘Abbas, who was one of the commentators amongst the companions, explained the meanings of verses by taking examples of the vocabulary in question from Arabic poetry. He advised people to collect and learn Arabic poetry saying, Poetry is the court of the Arabs (meaning the place where the finest language may be heard).Access to these sciences was at first available only to the Caliph (who was at that time leader of only Arab Muslims). Gradually they were made available to all Muslims and improved upon as research methods, structuring, classification and ordering of the subjects developed. One of the main reasons the civilization of Islam, which formed after the death of the Prophet, came to include a large part of the inhabited world (and which today numbers over six hundred million inhabitants), was the Qur’an. The appearance and diffusion of the revelation caused a change in the direction of history and generated a chain of important events resulting in the progress and development of the culture of man (Sayyid Hussein).
Tafsir and Ta’wil
The word tafsir is derived from the root ‘fassara‘ – to explain, to expound. It means ‘explanation’ or ‘interpretation’. In technical language the word tafsir is used for explanation, interpretation and commentary on the Qur’an, comprising all ways of obtaining knowledge, which contributes to the proper understanding of it, explains its meanings and clarifies its legal implications. The word mufassir (pl. mufassirun) is the term used for the person doing the tafsir, i.e. the ‘exegete’ or ‘commentator’.
The word ta’wil, which is also used in this connection, is derived from the root ‘awwala‘ and also means ‘explanation, interpretation’ .
In technical language it similarly refers to explanation and interpretation of the Qur’an.
Tafsir in the language of the scholars means explanation and clarification. It aims at knowledge and understanding concerning the book of Allah, to explain its meanings, extract its legal rulings and grasp its underlying reasons. Tafsir explains the ‘outer’ (zahir) meanings of the Qur’an. Ta’wil is considered by some to mean the explanation of the inner and concealed meanings of the Qur’an, as far as a knowledgeable person can have access to them. Others are of the opinion that there is no difference between Tafsir and ta’wil. (http://www.youngmuslims.ca/online_library/books/ulum_al_Quran/Ch6S1s1.htm)
Science of Hadith
Mustalah al-Hadith (Classification of Hadith)
Mustalah books speak of a number of classes of hadith in accordance with their status. The following broad classifications can be made. According to the reference to a particular authority, example the Prophet (May Allah bless him and grant him peace), a Companion, or a Successor; such a hadith are called marfu’ (elevated), mauquf (stopped) and maqtu’ (severed) respectively. According to the links in the isnad, in example whether the chain of reporters is interrupted or uninterrupted, example musnad (supported), muttasil (continuous), munqati’ (broken), mu’allaq (hanging), mu’dal (perplexing) and mursal (hurried). According to the number of reporters involved in each stage of the isnad, example mutawatir (consecutive) and ahad (isolated), the latter being divided into gharib (scarce, strange), ‘aziz (rare, strong), and mashhur (famous).According to the manner in which the hadith has been reported, such as using the (Arabic) words ‘an (”on the authority of”), haddathana (”he narrated to us”), akhbarana (”he informed us”) or sami’tu (”I heard”). In this category falls the discussion about mudallas (concealed) and musalsal (uniformly-linked) ahadith. According to the nature of the matn and isnad, example. an addition by a reliable reporter, known as ziyadatu thiqah, or opposition by a lesser authority to a more reliable one, known as shadhdh (irregular). In some cases, a text containing a vulgar expression, unreasonable remark or obviously-erroneous statement is rejected by the traditionists outright without consideration of the isnad: such a hadith is known as munkar (denounced). If an expression or statement is proved to be an addition by a reporter to the text, it is declared as mudraj (interpolated). According to a hidden defect found in the isnad or text of a hadith. Although this could be included in some of the previous categories, a hadith mu’allal (defective hadith) is worthy to be explained separately. The defect can be caused in many ways; in example two types of hadith mu’allal are known as maqlub (overturned) and mudtarib (shaky).
According to the reliability and memory of the reporters; the final judgment on a hadith depends crucially on this factor: verdicts such as sahih (sound), hasan (good), da’if (weak) and maudu’ (fabricated, forged) rest mainly upon the nature of the reporters in the isnad. (Mohammad Hashim Kamali: 1989, http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/scienceofhadith/asa2.html
Rijal al-Hadith (the study of the reporters of Hadith)
Mustalah al-Hadith is strongly associated with Rijal al-Hadith (the study of the reporters of hadith). In scrutinizing the reporters of a hadith, authenticating or disparaging remarks made by recognized experts, from amongst the Successors and those after them were found to be of great help. Examples of such remarks, in descending order of authentication, are: Imam (leader), Hafiz (preserver), reliable, trustworthy, makes mistakes, weak, abandoned (by the traditionists), liar, used to fabricate ahadith (http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/scienceofhadith/asa3.html. Reporters who have been unanimously described by statements such as the first two may contribute to a sahih (”sound”, see later) isnad. An isnad containing a reporter who is described by the last two statements is likely to be da’if jiddan (very weak) or maudu’ (fabricated). Reporters who are the subjects of statements such as the middle two above will cause the isnad to be da’if (weak), although several of them relating the same hadith independently will often increase the rank of the hadith to the level of hasan (good). If the remarks about a particular reporter conflict, a careful verdict has to be arrived at after in-depth analysis of e.g. the reason given for any disparagement, the weight of each type of criticism, the relative strictness or leniency of each critic, etc.
The earliest remarks cited in the books of Rijal go back to a host of Successors, followed by those after them until the period of the six canonical traditionists, a period covering the first three centuries of Islam. A number of traditionists made efforts specifically for the gathering of information about the reporters of the five famous collections of hadith, those of al-Bukhari (d. 256), Muslim (d. 261), Abu Dawud (d. 275), al- Tirmidhi (d. 279) and al-Nasa’i (d. 303), giving authenticating and disparaging remarks in detail.
The Quran is the fountainhead of Islamic intellectuality and sciences. It is the main source of inspiration of the Muslim vision of science. The Quran is not book of science but it does provide knowledge of the principles of science, which it always relates to knowledge of sciences. (Osman Bakar, 1991). According to the famous Muslim scientist, Ibn Sina, that science is true science which relates knowledge of the world to the knowledge of the Divine Principle (Ibn Sina, 1958). The Quran itself is so rich depository of science, prompting Bucaille (1982) to state that Quran is just like encyclopedia of science that can access such vast scientific wealth. Bucaille also stated because of Quran contain so much of the scientific, it is also impossible for the scientist to find inconsistencies in contradiction of science. In Quranic verses, many of the ayah or verses told about the creation and which has been proved used the scientific evidence. According Bucaille the Quran is invariably correct and that it correctly anticipated all major discoveries of modern science. He line ups an impressive number of Quranic references to bees, spiders, birds, plants and so forth. (Hoodbhoy, 1991) all the verses are gleaned some very useful evidence about the His creation. For example, Allah has mentioned about the water He has sent down.Water:
“Who made the earth a resting-place for you and the heaven a structure, and sends down rain from the clouds then brings forth with it fruits for your sustenance; so do not set up rivals to Allah while you know” (2:22).
Who made the earth for you an expanse and made for you therein paths and sent down water from the clouds. Then thereby We bring forth pairs of various herbs. Eat and pasture your cattle. Surely there are signs in this for men of understanding (20:53-54).
In the verses below it show the role and benefit of water as such drawn by geographical knowledge.
The origin of the universe:
1- The scientific discovery that at the time of the birth of the universe, single unified force prevailed testifies beyond doubt that the Creator of the Universe is One without any partners and that whatever the universe contains belongs to Him (Muhammad Munir, 1994). This fact as it has now been confirmed by the astro-physicists has been revealed in many verses of Holy Quran. In surah 22:64 and 112:1-4 it is thus revealed:
“Unto Him belonged all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. Lo! He verily is the Absolute, the Owner of Praise.” “Say: He is Allah the One! Allah, the eternally besought of all! He begetteth not nor was begotten. And there is none comparable unto Him.”
2- The scientific discovery establishes that the universe originated as an act of creation. The scientific view that the universe did not exist such from eternity, it was born and has since developed has further been strengthened by the Big Bang Theory. The big bang may be a great spiritual charge of attraction which appeared in a powerful eruption and created the external world in the form of cosmic radiation that illuminated the space (Muhammad Munir, 1994). The birth of the universe with the mighty outburst in the form of illumination known as big bang is just in accord with the revelation of the Holy Quran. In Sura 51:47 it is thus revealed:
“and We built the heaven with might, and We it is Who make the vast extent (musiun).”
3-According the Cambridge Atlas of Astronomy May, 1987 (see Muhammad Munir, 1994), the different categories oh heavens and their progressive development based on definite physical characteristics of heavens and their progressive development based on the definite physical characteristics and the hierarchical construction of galaxies which live in groups along with their stars and planets seem to be the same as mentioned in the Holy Quran in the following verse:
“Allah is He who created seven Heavens and the Earth like (planet). The communication comes down among them gradually so that you may know that Allah is able to do all things, and that Allah surround all things in knowledge (65:12).
The following verses reveal that the whole creation has developed from stage to stage:
“What aileth you that ye hope not toward Allah for dignity. When He created you by stages? See ye not Allah hath created seven heavens one above another.” (71:13-14)
Modern scientific discoveries confirm that planets, stars and galaxies did not exist from eternity; these developed in succeeding stages, one above the other. The same is true of the biological stages which developed on the earth. Each creative stage receives its nourishment relevant to the development and composition of the stage (Muhammad Munir, 1994).
Past history: The Quran mentions a city by the name of Iram where a prosperous people the AAD lived. It was a city of “tall pillars” (chapter 89: verses 6-8). “Have you noted what your Lord did to `Aad? Erum; the town with tall buildings. There was nothing like it anywhere”.Till very recently no historic or non-historic record existed about Iram. However in 1973, the ancient city of Ebla was excavated in Syria. While going through the tablet library of Ebla archaeologists came across a list of cities that Ebla traded with and on that list was a city named Iram. When reporting it in the National Geographic of December 1978, the only reference to Iram they could cite other than the tablets was the Koran, chapter 89.Creation of man: The Quran says that the “ejaculated drop” determines the sex of a human baby (53:45). “He is the One who created the two kinds, male and female. from a tiny drop of semen. He will effect the recreation”.It is common knowledge that semen is the fluid that is ejaculated by males during sexual acts. Females do not possess such “ejaculated semen.”The point is that the sex of the baby, whether it is male or female, will indeed be determined by the ‘ejaculated drop’, i.e. the father’s sperm. It has been scientifically established only recently that the female ovum contains only X-chromosomes. If the ejaculated drop bears the Y chromosome, the offspring will be male; otherwise the offspring will be female. No one living at the time of Muhammed or even Darwin for that matter had any knowledge of such genetics foretold centuries before in the Koran (Asadi, 1992, 1995).
As mentioned above, western sciences just accepted and recognized science as knowledge which can be seen and touch. No one can be declared as science unless it must empirical in study and rational also logic. All these methodologies were likely same with the Islamic science. Some methods in Islamic teachings stand as the driving forces behind this development of modern scientific methods that took place in the Islamic civilization.Firstly, is respect for observation. The Qur’an orders man to observe nature and thus spurs us towards the scientific method of induction. Say: “Behold all that is In the heavens and on earth”; But neither Signs nor Warners Profit those who believe not. Qur’an (10:101) If there were, in the heavens And the earth, other gods Besides God, there would Have been confusion in both! Qur’an (21:22) The contrast between the Islamic view of a nature packed with the signs of God that we are commanded to observe with the companionable distrust of the senses is unmistakable.Muhammad Iqbal has emphasized that “the general empirical attitude of the Qur’an which engendered in its followers a feeling of reverence for the actual and ultimately made them the founders of modern science. It was a great point to awaken the empirical spirit in an age that renounced the visible as of no value in men’s search after God”(quoted by Siddiqi, 1986).The Qur’an does not see empirical observation, rational thought, and Gnostic contemplation as pulling men in different directions. It insists that all lead to God. Thus, we are repeatedly exhorted to “see,” to “think,” and to “contemplate.”
“Say: See ye? If God were to make the day perpetual over you to the Day of Judgment, what god is there other than God, who can give you a night in which ye can rest? Will ye not then see?” (28:72).
“Now let man but think from what he is created!” (Qur’an 86:5).
“… contemplate the (wonders of) creation in the heavens and the earth, (with the thought): ‘Our Lord! not for naught hast Thou created (all) this!’” (Qur’an 3:191). Scholars such as Imams Bukhari and Muslim went on long expeditions to track down traditions (called hadith) attributed to the Prophet’s companions to their sources. They determined the complete chain of transmission from the Prophet’s companion to the particular reporter whom they were able to find. They made biographies of every transmitter in the chain to determine their reliability for honesty, soundness of memory, plausibility of having met adjacent members in the chain of transmission, and other. Thus, Muslim historians became accustomed to the process of citation, something that is an indispensable part of modern science. The vagueness of ancient historians about their sources stands in stark contrast to the insistence that scholars such as Bukhari and Muslim manifested in knowing every member in a chain of transmission and examining their reliability. They published their findings, which were then subjected to additional scrutiny by future scholars for consistency with each other and the Qur’an. By the third century of Islam this methodology was well developed. Such open “historical criticism” of the Islamic traditions is a process to which Christian texts have been subjected only in recent centuries. It is a process of analysis and preservation in the form of a scientific study. Hadith science was original with Islam. It was the first uniquely Islamic science and provided a precedent for open and rigorous scholarly debate in the natural sciences that were being assimilated into the emerging Islamic culture (Imad-ad-Dean Ahmad from http://www.minaret.org/ifrane.pdf).
The differences between the two sciences actually based on their application within the conceptual environment. The conceptual environment means the worldview of individuals who are engaged in a certain scientific activity. Moreover, through the scientific conceptual scheme or context, a science is bound to be local or cultural, and again it is the environment together with the context arising out of it that renders science to be western or Islamic (Salah, 2002).
Western science developed outside the religious frame, Islam, as expressed in numerous Quranic and verses and Prophet’s saying. The abolition of the priesthood and prohibitions of secrecy prevented scientific knowledge from becoming the property of elite. Knowledge was available to everyone. In the Christian world, people went to the church for religious instruction only. Even that instruction was a “lay” instruction, fit for the layman. Reading of the Bible itself was discouraged for those not initiated into the priesthood. The subtle doctrines of Christian theology might confuse the layman and weaken his faith. It was better to provide him with pre-digested teaching. By contrast every Muslim was expected to read and preferably memorize the Qur’an. (The very first word of the Qur’an revealed to Muhammad was the commandment “Read!”) All knowledge was considered sacred and people came to the mosque to study not only the Qur’an and the traditions, but mathematics, history, natural science, etc. As the numbers of teachers and classes exceeded the space in the mosque, additional buildings would be added around it. Thus, the world came to know its first modern universities. Terms coined in that era are still in use today. The teachers would sit in low chairs with the students gathered on the carpeted floor around them. A new student interested in learning, say mathematics, could walk into the mosque and ask, “Where is the chair of
mathematics?” or “Where is the chair of astronomy?” (Imad-ad-Dean Ahmad: http://www.minaret.org/ifrane.pdf )
Western sciences are differed from Islamic because the ultimate sources use in Islam is Quran and hadith. While its not been used by the western science as their references rather they are base on the empirical and rational.
The Quran as a whole manifest two worlds which are subject to human knowledge: the first world it refers to unseen world (alam al-ghayb) and visible world (alam al-shahadah). This evidence have clearly stated (al-Zumar: 46, al-mu’minun: 92, al-An’am:63, al-Hashr: 22 and at-Tawbah: 105). Although it is clear that the ghayb cannot be known by man, it is never implied in the Quran that man cannot know the shahadah, on the contrary, man is encouraged to inquire into and reflect upon it:
In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the alternation of night and day there are indeed signs for men of understanding. (3:190).
Prof. Syed Naquib Al-Attas stressed there are two kinds of knowledge necessarily emerged. One id visible world and the other is the absolute realm, represented by the Quran as alam al-ghayb.
The Western world has since concentrated its intellectual energies upon the study of the quantitative aspects of things, thus developing a science of Nature, whose all too obvious fruits in the physical domain have won for it the greatest esteem among people everywhere, for most of whom “science” is identified with technology and its applications. Islamic science, by contrast, seeks ultimately to attain such knowledge as will contribute toward the spiritual perfection and deliverance of anyone capable of studying it; thus its fruits are inward and hidden, its values more difficult to discern. To understand it requires placing oneself within its perspective and accepting as legitimate a science of Nature which has a different end, and uses different means, from those of modern science (Syed Hossien Nasr, 1968).
If it is unjust to identify Western science solely with its material results, it is even more unjust to judge medieval science by its outward “usefulness” alone. However important its uses may have been in calendarial work, in irrigation, in architecture, its ultimate aim has always been to relate the corporeal world to its basic spiritual principle, through the knowledge of those symbols which unite the various orders of reality. It can only be understood, and should only be judged, in terms of its own aims and its own perspectives.
Islam is a religion that urges the people to seek for knowledge. It has categorized science as one of knowledge under fard kifayah (obligatory to some). So, it is important for Muslim to learn it through the manifestation of the ultimate principles.
Science is a process. It is also can be said as the intellectual property of all humankind, and part of the universal cultural heritage. Islam is universal religion that not separate apart knowledge and ritual aspects. As relying to the ultimate sources for mankind, man will not astray and always be guided by God. In fact, the western science is imbalance the knowledge when they only take the material things and left immaterial behind. Islamic science which rely on the Quran and Hadith as their source of knowledge accept subjects which is more practicable and beauty in nature. Allahu a`lam (God knows best).

Abdullah Yusuf Ali. (2005). The Meaning of the Holy Qur’an. Subang Jaya: Secretariat for Asia Assembly of Ulama’.

Alparslan, Acikgenc. (1996). Islamic science towards a definition. Kuala Lumpur: ISTAC.

Asadi, Muhammed A. 1992. Koran: A Scientific Analysis. Lahore. Pakistan

Asadi, Muhammed A. 1995. The Message of Qur’an and Islam. Lahore, Pakistan: Ferozsons’ Ltd.
Bucaille, Maurice. (1982). What Is the Origin of Man. Paris: Seghers Publisher.
Hooker, Richard. (1999). What Is Science. World Civilizations. Retrieved from http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/SCIENCE/BASELINE.HTM%20on%201st%20November%202007.
Hoodbhoy, Pervez. (1991). Islam and science: Religious Orthodoxy and the Battle for Rationality. London: Zed Books Ltd.
Ibn sina. (1958). Al-isharat wa al-tanbihat. Cairo: dar al-Maarif.
Imad-ad-Dean Ahmad. The Rise and Fall of Islamic Science: The Calender As a Case Study.
Bethesda: Minaret of Freedom Institute. Retrieved from http://www.minaret.org/ifrane.pdf%20on%2028%20October%202007.
Islamic science. 2007. US: Wikipedia the free encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_method%20on%201st%20November%202007.
MSA. Mustalah al-Hadith (Classification of Hadith). USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Text. Retrieved from http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/scienceofhadith/asa2.html%20on%205%20November%202007.
MSA. Rijal al-Hadith (the study of the reporters of Hadith). USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Text. Retrieved from http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/scienceofhadith/asa3.html on 5 November 2007
Muhammad Hashim Kamali. (1989). Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence. Petaling Jaya: Pelanduk Publication.
Muhammad Munir. (1994). The Universe Beyond: A Scientific Study In the Light of the Holy Quran and The Modern Sciences. Islamabad: Pangraphics Ltd.
Osman Bakar. (1991). Tawhid and Science: Essays on History and Philosophy of Islamic Science. Penang: Secretariat for Islamic Philosophy and Science.
Salah Zaimeche. (2002). Islamic and Science. UK: Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation. Retrieved from http://www.bris.ac.uk/Depts/Union/IslamicSoc/Islam%20and%20Science%20Essay%203.htm on 28 October 2007.
Sayyid Muhammad Hussain Tabataba’i. The Qur’an in Islam. Aalulbayt global information centre. Retrieved in http://www.al-shia.com/html/eng/p.php?p=quran&url=Al-Quran on 4th November 2007.
Scientific method. 2007. US: Wikipedia the free encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_method%20on%201st%20November%202007.
Siddiqi, M. Razi-ud-Din. (1986) Muslim Contribution to Science, Mohamad R. Mirza and
Muhammad Iqbal Siddiqi, eds. Lahore: Kazi Publications.
Syed Hossein Nasr. (1968). Science and Civilization in Islam. New York: New American Library.

Siri Psikologi Islam (1)

Siri Psikologi Islam (SPI) ini merupakan ringkasan daripada sebuah buku yang ditulis oleh seorang pakar psikologi Islam, Prof. Muhammad Yazdi yang membahaskan tema-tema penting psikologi berkaitan kehidupan masyarakat secara umum menurut pandangan Islam. Menurut kami, SPI ini sangat membantu mereka yang ingin mengarahkan jiwanya agar lebih positif, berjaya dalam hidup dan tegar berada di tengah masyarakat serta berhasrat meraih kebahagiaan di dunia dan akhirat. Setiap orang daripada kita selalu menghadapi dugaan hidup; sama ada yang muncul dari dalam diri atau kerana faktor luar, sama ada kita sedar atau tidak. Sebahagian dari dugaan itu mungkin berupa:
- Mengapa sebahagian manusia suka sedangkan sebahagian yang lain benci terhadap asas atau keyakinan suatu kelompok tertentu?
- Mengapa sebahagian orang tidak mahu mengikuti kebiasaan umum masyarakat, dan menentukan pemikiran dan jalan hidupnya sendiri?
- Mengapa hidup ini ada yang cinta, rindu dan sayang, sebaliknya di pihak lain ada yang benci, penuh dendam dan terbuang?
- Mengapa sebahagian orang penyabar dan memiliki kemampuan tinggi untuk menahan jiwanya, sementara yang lainnya hanya sedikit kesabarannya, cepat terpengaruh dan mudah marah atau bahkan gembira terhadap hal-hal yang sangat sederhana?
- Mengapa sebahagian orang dapat menyesuaikan kehidupannya dengan pelbagai kondisi, sedangkan yang lain setiap masa merasakan hidup ini kian sempit, meskipun mereka kaya-raya?
Kunci utama untuk dicintai dan disukai oleh masyarakat ada pada hati setiap manusia. Justeru, bagaimana kita boleh menanamkan perasaan ini dan menjadikan masyarakat mencintai kita? Mungkin bagi orang yang sudah rosak jiwanya akan berputus asa. Namun Tuhan tidak akan pernah mensia-siakan sesiapa juga. Lalu bagaimana caranya? SPI yang sederhana ini akan berkongsi dengan mereka yang masih mengharapkan manfaat dalam mengatasi semua masalah ini. Semoga ia menjadi kunci kejayaan dan kebahagiaan di dunia dan akhirat. Selamat membaca!

Apa itu pencerahan, Immanuel Kant.

artikel pendek ini dikeluarkan di dalam buku JAWHAR jilid 4 bil.2 jun/julai 2007:

Apa itu pencerahan, Immanuel Kant. Terjemahan oleh Pauline Fan. Institute Kajian Dasar: Kuala Lumpur, 2006. 36 halaman. ISBN: 983-884-081-5.
Buku yang hanya mengandungi 36 halaman ini bukanlah buku yang mudah untuk difahami. Penuh dengan kenyataan yang perlu diamati dengan mendalam dan penuh kritis untuk memahami dengan sebaiknya (walaupun tidak menuntut dengan gurunya). Di ruang kata penghantar menceritakan tentang sejarah hidup Kant dan sejarah sekitar bagaimana zaman pencerahan ini berlaku.Kant adalah ahli falsafah terulung baik di Timur dan di Barat. Beliau memperkenalkan falsafah kritis melalui tiga mahakarya kritik: kritik der reinan vernunft (kritik terhadap akal murni), kritik der praktischen vernunft (kritik terhadap akal amali) dan kritik der urteilskraft (kritik terhadap penilaian). Kritik terhadap akal murni ditulis selepas muncul dari tahun kesenyapan. Tahun kesenyapan adalah tahun di mana beliau tidak menulis dan lebih sibuk merenung persoalan hubungan antara daya pancaindera dan daya akal manusia.
Semasa berada di pengajian ijazah, nama ini dimaklumi sebagai seorang ahli falsafah yang menerangkan makna-makna moral dan etika. Beliau lahir pada 1724 di Konigsberg, ibu kota Prussia Timur. Kant menerima didika Pietist yang menegaskan pembelajaran agama dan bahasa Latin. Pietism adalah sebuah gerakan pembaharuan Lutheran yang mengutamakan kesalihan dan sifat rendah hati. Penganut pietisme, satu golongan dalam mazhab Lutheran yang menekankan agama hati, kesucian hati dan pembersihan akhlak dari penggunaan akala. Pada usia 16 tahun pelajarannya di dalam bidang falsafah di University Konigsberg tertangguh akibat kematian ayahnya yang menjadi sumber rezeki pendapatan keluarga. Beliau menjadi guru sambilan di pekan-pekan sekitar Konigsberg. Kemudian dilantik menjadi Professor Logik dan Metafizik di Universiti Konigsberg pada 1770.Zaman pencerahan pula muncul selepas perdamaian Westphalia (1648). Perdamaian Westphalia adalah titik tolak berakhirnya peperangan agama di Eropah yang berlaku selama 30 tahun. Ketenteraman menyediakan suasana dan ruang yang merangsang akal untuk berfikir. Perang yang berpunca dari kefanatikan beragama dan cara beragama yang menggunakan akal menyebabkan keyakinan agama para pemikir zaman moden Eropah terhakis. Justeru, mereka lebih mempercayai akal dari wahyu. Sikap ini ternyata terserlah pada Voltaire, seorang pemikir pencerahan Perancis yang paling berpengaruh. Beliau percaya adanya Tuhan, tetapi tidak percaya pada wahyu dan perkara ghaib.
Kant adalah filasuf pencerahan yang terakhir dan teragung dan amat dipengaruhi oleh perkembangan sains dan menganggap falsafahnya sebagai gandingan epistemology kepada revolusi Corpernilus dalam bidang sains astronomi. Kant juga membina system falsafah yang meliputi system moral dan asas-asasnya pada hati nurani manusia.
Wasist Aufklarung (Apa itu Pencerahan?) merupakan satu pengalaman peribadi, keberanian untuk membebaskan diri sendiri dari konkongan ketidakmatangan. Kesan dari agama anutannya yang tidak memberi penekanan kepada akal, Kant yang sejak muda memiliki akal kritis dan berjaya membebaskan diri dari konkongan awal.
Para falsafah yang menolak projek pencerahan Kant adalah Hamann (kawan baik) dan Johann Gotfried (anak murid yang paling berbakat). Mereka melihat gagasan Pencerahan secara spontan, tanpa berfikir, tanpa membuat pertimbangan, dan tindakan tersebut adalah dalam lingkungan norma dan peraturan yang diterima turun menurun. Mereka melakukan konsepsi kemanusiaan yang lebih integral atau lengkap. Ini kerana kehidupan dan pengalaman manusia adalah lebih rencam.Sapere aude! Beranilah menggunakan kefahaman sendiri! Itulah cogankata Pencerahan. Menurut kant, akal yang tidak berfungsi kerana kurang azam dan keberaniaan. Manusia lebih selesa berada dalam lingkungan tidakmatang dan menganggap jejak langkah menuju kematangan suatu yang amat menyusahkan dan bahaya.
Kesimpulannya, pencerahan membebaskan tenaga pikiran manusia yang membeku di dalam sel darah-darah. Neuron yang tidak cekap bertindakbalas mempamerkan akal dan idea yang malam dan hambar. Maka pencerahan……Kewarasan dan keinsafan fikiran dan tulisan Kant jelas dilihat dalam ayat nisannya: “Dua perkara semakin menyegarkan fikiran dengan kekaguman dan ketakjuban, semakin lama dan semakin mendalam saya merenungkannya: bintang-bintang di kayangan dan hukum susila batin”. Semoga makna pencerahan meyerapi urat nadi segenap kita agar yang suram menjadi cerah, yang gelap menjadi terang dan yang beku menjadi cair mengalir di sumur pencerahan.

Sekitar SPTI ke 6

terima kasih…..semua yang menjayakan seminar
Peserta seminar memenuhi dewan auditorium A

mc rehearsal...final touch sehari sebelum program

26 Mac 2009



setiap kumpulan dikehendaki memilih satu soalan sahaja. Pembentangan akan dibuat secara berkumpulan pada 29/03/2009.


1. Anda adalah pakar sakit puan dan akan memberi penerangan kepada ibu-ibu yang hamil tentang perkembangan prantal dari sudut fizikal, kognitif dan emosi.

2. Anda sebagai pensyarah psikologi kanak-kanak diminta untuk memberi ceramah kepada guru-guru tadika di dalam daerah Kuala Selangor tentang perkembangan kanak-kanak dari sudut sosial, fizikal dan kognitif.

3. Anda adalah pegawai dari kementerian Belia dan Sukan diminta untuk memberi ceramah tentang perkembangan remaja awal, tengah dan akhir kepada guru Sekolah Menengah Badrizaman, Kajang.

4. Anda diminta untuk memberi ceramah tentang perkembangan dewasa dari sudut emosi, fizikal dan sosial kepada pegawai-pegawai Kebajikan Masyarakat Cheras.